Andalusia, or today's Spanish, is the centerpiece of the culture and art of Islam and the West. The eight-hundred-year-old presence of Muslims in this land, and the deep seated of Islamic culture and art, made Spain a bridge between two great civilizations. This effect can be examined on two axes: the art of Christians dominated by Islamic rule, and the other is Islamic art, which was influenced by the common arts in other lands under the rule of Islam in Spain.
During the domination of the rule of the various Muslim churches in Spain, a group of Christians who tried to preserve their ethnic culture and art, but inevitably accepted the influence of Islamic culture and architecture, became a popular art from the eighth to the eleventh centuries (second to fifth century AD). ) Was evolving alongside Islamic architecture and art. In this way, in the 11th century, the influence of the art of Romanism ceased to exist and disappeared. The governors and Muslim clerics, in a peaceful manner, allowed the Christians to build Christian worship in accordance with certain conditions for their religious ceremonies, as a result of the architectural and decorative practices of those Christians, which was a blend of local folk art and glorious elements of the way Islamic The influence of this art as well as the arts and architecture of the sixth century. AH (12th Century), which the Spanish Christians gradually began to recapture from their Muslims, until the ninth century. The 15th AD (the fifteenth AD), the beginning of the Renaissance of Europe, spread to Spain and Portugal.
In architecture, the first example of Muslim presence in this part of the world is the mosque of Cordoba. The mosque, which is one of the glorious architectures of the Islamic world, began in 168 AH and was erected by Abdul Rahman Inside and was completed by Hisham, his son in 177 AH. Abdul Rahman II built the mosque of Ashbyyya in imitation of the great mosque, and, with the development of the Cordoba Palace, as well as the two streets on two sides of the Wadi Kabir, provided a beautiful walkway for Cordova. Also, Abdul Rahman III (d. 350 AH 961 AD), called "Al-Nasser" after Abdurrahman II, plays an important role in Andalusian culture and art. One of the most important work of this ruler was the construction of a city called "al-Zahra" (in 324 AH). According to Ibn Khaldun, Nasser built a beautiful city with magnificent buildings by calling architects, artists, temples, calligraphers and painters from all over Andalus, Baghdad, Egypt and even Constantinople. One of the most magnificent of these buildings was the Palace of Al-Zahra, and in particular its reception hall. Gardens and parks built in al-Zahra made this city one of the most beautiful cities in the world. The artistic decoration of this palace was associated with the role of the Qur'anic verses and the artist's paintings and paintings, which, to a certain extent, had been, until now, and the imagination of no ambition was capable of creating such an appearance. Beside the Palace of the Masjid Azimi was also built which was one of the most striking architectures of Andalusia.
Among the many palaces of the Spanish Islamic era, the most famous palace is the Alhmra stronghold, or the majestic Amiran of Morocco Granada or the Garnet, known as the Bonsairan Dynasty. Most of the palace was built in the seventh century AH. Alhambra's buildings are typical examples of the growth of Islamic Maghreb Islamic art in Spain. In these buildings, a new style emerged that was most recent from the teachings of Islam and North Africa, and less related to Spain itself. One of the hallmarks of Alhambra's architecture is its introspection. In Alhambra, interior decorations are much more than outer awe. This luxurious and luxurious palace is built in a red brick wall, which is also called "al-Hamra" or "red square" in the Arabic language. The main irregular and extensive structure of the building mainly consists of two rectangular courtyards perpendicular to Each of them has access to rows of entrances and caverns and rooms. The lion's dining area, the smaller of which has more decorative elements, is enclosed in four-side vaults, alternating between the tentacles and the two pillars of fine tufts, with the crowns adorned with the towering motifs, and the arches are from the inside of the flank of several blades and the top wall of them with stucco The interlaced straight lines and the Quranic inscriptions are adorned. In the center of the gorgeous rocky hill on the back of the gates, the lion's body is embedded in black stones. On the exterior of the altar, the simple alchemy and its various decorations are laid out in the Moroccan barbarian way of housekeeping, which include: tiled engraving and engraving, numerous patterns on the texture tour, or Islamic geometric designs, and plant flowers or slalomies. Interlaced, Quranic marginal inscriptions to Kofi lines, Nashkh and Reyhani.
Undoubtedly, along with architecture, other Islamic artifacts were also effective in this land. This influence was dramatic in various artistic disciplines such as urbanization, architecture of mosques, palaces, parks and bridges, coinage, calligraphy, jaundice on textiles, textiles and paper making, and in its vestibule had such an aesthetic and powerful soul that, as it were The imitation of Europeans. Also, Islamic decorative arts such as knitting, carving on metal and dentin, wicker and gold plated on bronze and steel with the famous "damask" shapes like making, hat and swords are precious, and especially tile and pottery with shimmering shades of colors and Became a schoolmaster.
A form of art that developed and developed during the Islamic era in Spain had a tremendous impact on the introduction of Islamic art to Europeans and its influence on the modern art of the following centuries.